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Measurement principle and classification of gas sensors

Update: 2020-04-27 14:10 Source: LUFTMY Reading: ↻ News
 

People rely on sensory organs to pick up information from the outside world, and the sensors are called "electrical features", which are converted into concrete data just like the human features.With the advent of the information age, sensors monitor and control various parameters in life and industrial production, so that the equipment can reach the best working state.It can be said that every intelligent field is inseparable from sensors, the types of sensors can be divided by the purpose, working principle, etc., among which the gas sensor is also one of the most common sensors in life and industrial production.

Measurement principle of gas sensor

A gas sensor is a converter that converts a gas volume fraction into a corresponding electrical signal.The probe is conditioned on the gas sample by a gas sensor, usually including the removal of impurities and interfering gas, drying or cooling treatment instrument display.Gas sensor is a kind of gas composition, concentration and other information into information can be used by personnel, instruments, computers device!Gas sensors are generally classified as chemical sensors.

Classification of gas sensors

1. Catalytic combustion gas sensor

The main characteristic of catalytic combustion gas sensor is that it responds to all combustible gases, is insensitive to the influence of environmental humidity and temperature, has near-linear output signal, and its cost is low and its structure is simple.But the accuracy is low, the current power consumption is big, the working temperature is high, easy toxic adverse effect and so on.

2. Semiconductor gas sensor

Semiconductor gas sensor has the advantages of fast reaction, simple structure and high sensitivity.Defect is small measurement linear range, larger, influence of the background gas easily affected by environmental temperature, etc., semiconductor gas sensor is made of metal or metal oxide semiconductor oxide material detecting element, and the gas generated when the interaction surface adsorption and reaction, cause the carrier movement characterized by the electrical conductivity of volt-ampere characteristic or surface potential changes and the gas concentration measurement.

3. Electrochemical gas sensor

Electrochemical gas sensor is characterized by good linearity and repeatability, small size, low power consumption, resolution can generally reach 0.1 PPM, long life.The disadvantage is that it is susceptible to interference and the sensitivity is greatly affected by temperature changes.The principle is to use the electrochemical activity of the detected gas, electrochemical reduction or oxidation, to detect the concentration and composition of the gas.The common types of electrochemical sensors include galvanic cell and constant potential electrolytic cell.At present, electrochemical sensors are the most mature and common sensors for detecting toxic and harmful gases.

HPD05 Infrared PM2.5 Sensor Module
HPD05 Infrared PM2.5 Sensor Module

4. Infrared gas sensor

The working principle of the infrared gas sensor is to measure the gas concentration by using the infrared absorption spectral characteristics or thermal effect of the measured gas. The commonly used types are DIR dispersive infrared and NDIR non-dispersive infrared, and the commonly used spectrum range is 1 ~ 25 m.

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